Community Nutrition – Ch 1

Exam 1 Review
Chapter 1:

  1. Define community. What are some examples?
    o Grouping of people residing in a specific locality who interact and connect
    through a definite social structure to fulfill a wide range of daily needs
  2. What are the four components of community?
    o People
    o A location in space
    o Social interaction
    o Shared values
  3. What is community nutrition?
    o Strives to improve health, nutrition, and well-being of individuals and
    groups within communities
  4. What are the three arenas that are the focus of community nutrition?
    o People
    o Policy
    o Programs
  5. What is public health?
    o Focuses on protecting and promoting people’s health through the actions
    of society
  6. How does the WHO define health?
    o Absence of disease and pain
  7. What are factors/determinants of health (reference Table 1-2)
    Determinants of Health
    Biology and Genetics Sex, race, age, other hereditary
    factors
    Lifestyle Physical activity; diet; hobbies;
    leisure-time activities; use of drugs:
    cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco,
    alcohol, prescription medications,
    illicit drugs such as cocaine,
    marijuana, etc.; religion; safety
    practices such as hand washing,
    wearing seat belts, and wearing wrist
    guards and knee pads, medical selfcare, and stress management.
    Living, Working, and Social
    Conditions
    Housing, education, occupation,
    income, employment status, social
    networks such as family, friends,
    coworkers, socioeconomic
    status/class, economic inequality,
    racial and ethnic health disparities,
    access to nutritious foods, access to
    health services, and public safety.
    Community Conditions Climate and geography; water
    supply; type and condition of
    housing; community design; number
    and type of hospitals and clinics;
    health and medical services; social
    services; leading industries;
    political/government structure;
    community health groups and
    organizations; number, type, and
    location of grocery stores, etc.;
    recreational settings; transportation
    systems; built environment
    (buildings, sidewalks, bike lanes, and
    roads).
    Background Conditions National food and nutrition policy;
    state and local food and nutrition
    policy; national minimum wage;
    cultural beliefs; cultural values;
    cultural attitudes; advertising; media
    messages; and food distribution
    system.
  8. What are the three types of prevention efforts? What are examples of each
    type?
    o Primary- preventing disease by controlling risk factors
    o Secondary- detecting disease early through screening and other forms of
    risk appraisal
    o Tertiary- treat and rehabilitate people with illness or injury
  9. What are the overarching goals of Healthy People 2020?
    o Attain high quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability,
    injury, and premature death.
    o Achieve healthy equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all
    groups
    o Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
    o Promote quality life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across
    all life stages
  10. What are some tasks involved in community nutrition practice?
    o Involve issues of policy, program management, and cost
    o Entail making decisions about how to use scarce resources
    o Concerned with determining whether nutrition programs and services are
    reaching the right audience with the right message and having the desired
    effect
    o Present challenges to a trained professional—the community nutritionist
  11. What are the educational requirements for individuals who may work in
    community nutrition settings?
    o Dietitians: always registered or licensed
    o Public health nutritionists: at least a bachelor’s degree
  12. What are some of the roles/responsibilities one might have as a community
    dietitian nutritionist?
    o Roles: educator, counselor, advocate, coordinator, generator of ideas,
    facilitator, and supervisor.
    o Responsibilities: planning, evaluating, managing, and marketing nutrition
    services, programs, and interventions.
  13. What are some of the social and economic trends for community nutrition?
    How might these trends impact community nutrition?
    o An aging population
    o Generational diversity
    o Increasing demands for nutrition and health care services
    o Increasing ethnic diversity
    o Increasing emphasis on addressing health disparities