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In the job characteristics model

In the job characteristics model, work with __ allows an employee to a complete piece of work from beginning to end.
a). task significance
b). skill variety
c). task identity


c). task identity


There are five core job dimensions namely task identity, skill variety, autonomy, task significance, and job feedback. Task identity details the extent to which a job requires completing the whole process from the start to the end. For example, a developer who works so hard to complete a task from the beginning to the end so as to meet the customer’s desires has a high task identity.


Job Characteristics Model:

4. Research questions and Answers

Should everyone’s job be enriched? – the answer is clearly no. The logic of individual differences suggests that not everyone will want an enriched job. Individuals most likely to have positive reactions to job enrichment are those who need achievement, who exhibit a strong work ethic, or who are seeking high-order growth-need satisfaction at work

Core characteristics :

Skill variety

degree to which a job includes a variety of different activities and involves the use of several different skills and talents.. what core characteristic is this?

Core characteristics :

Task identity

the degree to which the job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work, one that involves doing job from beginning to end with a visible outcome…. what core characteristic is this?

Core characteristics :

Task significance

the degree to which a job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general…. what core characteristic is this?

Core characteristics :


degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the process used in carrying it out…. what core characteristic is this?

Core characteristics :

Job feedback

the degree to which carrying out the work activities provides direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done….. what core characteristic is this?

*3 critical psychological states that have a positive impact on individual motivation, performance, and satisfaction:

  • 1.Experienced meaningfulness of the work
  • 2.Experienced responsibility for the outcomes of the work
  • 3.Knowledge of actual results of the work
  • Psychological Empowerment:

Job Characteristics Model:

Moderator Variables def

  • The 5 core job characteristics do not affect all people in the same way. Hackman and Oldham say that enriched jobs will lead to positive outcomes only for those who are a good match for them (Person-Job fit). When the fit between the person and job is poor then that person is more likely to experience less positive outcomes and more problems will occur.

*3 moderators:

1. Growth-need strength

2. Knowledge and Skill

3. Context Satisfaction

Job characteristics Model

  • An approach to job design that aims at identifying characteristics that make jobs intrinsically motivating

Job enrichment

  • Increasing employee’s responsibility and control over work

Skill variety

  • extent to which job requires employees to use a number of different skills and abilities

Task variety

  • extent to which job involves performing a whole piece of work from start to finish

Task significance

  • extent to which job has an impact on lives of other people


  • Extent to which jobs allows freedom to schedule work and decide how to carry it out


  • Extent to which performing job provides clear information about effectiveness

Motivating potential score

  • A measure of the overall potential of a job to foster intrinsic motivation

Equation for MPS

  • (Task variety + task significance + skill variety) /3 x autonomy x feedback

3 Psychological states

  • Experienced Meaningfulness of Work: extent to which employees feel their job is important, worthwhile, and important
  • Experienced Responsibility for Work Outcomes: Extent to which employees feel they are personally responsible or accountable for their job performance
  • Knowledge of results: Extent to which employees know how well they perform their jobs

Individual Differences

  • Growth Need Strength: Extent to which an individual wants his / her work to contribute to personal growth, learning, and personal development
  • Knowledge and Skills: Extent to which individual possesses skills and knowledge necessary to complete the task
  • Satisfaction with work context: Extent to which employees are satisfied with extrinsic outcomes

Job Rotation

  • Periodic shifting of an employee from one task to another

Pros of Job Rotation

  • Reduces boredom and increase motivation
  • Helps employees better understand how their work contributes to the organization and develop their skills

Cons of Job Rotation

  • Increases training costs
  • Decreases benefits of automatic and efficient decision making & routinized performance
  • New members may disrupt existing worker’s flows
  • Increases supervision and monitoring costs

Job Enrichment

  • Increasing employee’s controls over the planning, execution, and evaluation of the work

Ways to Enrich/ Re-Design Jobs to Enrich MPS

  • Combine tasks so that employees are responsible for doing a piece of work from start to finish
  • Group tasks into natural work units so that employees are responsible for an entire set of important activities
  • Allow employees to interact with customers and clients, and make employees responsible for managing these relationships and satisfying customers
  • Vertically load jobs so that employees have more control over work activities and higher level of responsibility
  • Open feedback channels so that employees know how well they are performing their jobs

Relational Job Design

  • employees are willing to maintain motivation when their work is relationally designed to provide opportunities for respectful contact with the beneficiaries of their efforts

Connection with Beneficiaries increases

  • Perceived impact
  • Perceived social worth
  • perspective-taking and empathy towards beneficiaries
  • affective commitment

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