CHAPTER 9: Hello, Neighbor: How Cells Communicate summary

How cells communicate Cells live in environments with numerous signals. Cels take up materials from the environments across plasma membranes. Transport across membranes Two factors determine whether materials can cross the plasma membrane. Size: Small molecules can cross the plasma membrane faster than larger molecules. Attraction to water: hydrophobic

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CHAPTER 8: Lipids: Waterproof and Energy Rich summary

Lipids are molecules that cannot dissolve in water. Cells synthesize most lipids including phospholipids, sterols, and fats. Structure of lipids All lipid molecules are hydrophobic. Lipids are hydrophobic because they have several nonpolar covalent bonds. Unlike other macromolecules, lipids are not polymers. According to their structures, lipids are divided

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CHAPTER 6: Proteins: Workers in the Cellular Factory summary

Introduction Most cellular jobs are performed by proteins Proteins interact with other molecules in specific ways to perform cellular functions Levels of protein structure Proteins are amino acid polymers The amino acid polymer is called a polypeptide Once polypeptides are functional after being folded, the polypeptides are called proteins

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CHAPTER 5: Carbohydrates: How Sweet They Are summary

Structure of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are molecules made up of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon There are two main types of carbohydrates: Monosaccharides– known as simple sugars eg glucose Polysaccharides- they are complex carbohydrates Monosaccharides This is single sugars They have a generic formula; CH2O They are colorless and crystalline solids

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