EIS (Executive Information Systems)
This system supports senior executives in the form of data, graphs, charts to analyze long term trends.
TPS (Transaction process system)
This system tracks the flow of daily routine transactions that are necessary to conduct business.
MIS (Management Information Systems)
This system provides first level managers with reports that provide performance and historical records that help keep a business running smoothly.
DSS (Decision Support System)
This system provides modeling and analytical tools that support middle to senior managers in all aspects of the decision making process, when problems are unique, unstructured, and not easily specified in advance, to project potential future trends.
The information systems structure is horizontal as it encompasses many different business functions within an organization.
The main agenda of information systems is expected to change every three years due to the dynamic nature of IS functions.
The evolution of software has produced the ability to manage large databases of information, known as
database management systems (DBMS)
was the first computer software language for business applications
Common Business Oriented Language (COBOL)
is a programming environment that provides tools to developers to write code.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
components include devices that provide input into the processing unit. These include peripherals, such as the keyboard, mouse, microphone (audio input), sensors, and document or visual scanners.
which is the brain of the computer. Historically, this unit included several components, such as a control unit, a processor, an arithmetic or logic unit, and memory components.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
components include primary temporary storage and secondary long-term storage devices.
is temporary or short-term storage used by the processor.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
components include internal storage devices or processes, as well as external peripherals such as monitor screens (visual output), speakers (audio output), and printers (physical output).
which is the medium through which communications between the input, processor, storage, and output occur.
or similarly the backplane, of a system is the device that contains the system bus and connects the various input and output devices that compose any given computer system.
tracking barcodes and wireless sensor networks, some used in supply chain operations.
radio frequency identification (RFID)
A person interacts with digital data through a physical environment.
Tangible User Interface (TUI)
is the most advanced integrated circuit and holds millions of integrated circuits in a semiconductor chip. They are programmable devices that process instructions and incorporate the four functions of a computer central processing unit (CPU), which includes fetch, decode, execute and store.
A chip with multiple CPUs is called a …….. This typically provides more computing power for they can run multiple instructions in parallel.
coined by the co-founder of Intel, described that components in integrated circuits or microchips will double every two years.
otherwise known as CPU cache and random access memory (RAM), are typically referred to as volatile flash memory, meaning that information storage is temporary and can only be stored until power is removed.
is accessed only through a system’s input/output bus and is generally several orders of magnitude slower than primary storage technologies. On the other hand, costs per byte for ……….. have historically been quite a bit less than primary storage technologies. Examples of …………. include magnetic hard disk drives, which are spinning magnetic disks with moving read and write heads, as well as newer, more modern solid state nonvolatile flash storage. …………. also includes removable media, such as magnetic floppy disks, optical discs (CDs & DVDs), and USB flash drives.
Small systems are used on an individual basis (i.e., one-person use) and include traditional multicomponent desktop systems (monitor, computer, keyboard, mouse) and integrated systems, such as laptops and tablet computers.
Personal Computer (PC)
A more powerful system used by individuals in order to run more resource-intensive applications.
A system used to provide services to other systems. Servers need not be powerful computers. Server operating systems may be used on personal computers, including desktops or laptops, though usually servers are built on more resilient and reliable components.
A high-capacity, high-performance system built for large organizations and used to quickly process large volumes of data.
This term merely implies the fastest category of computer available. Supercomputers are purpose built to handle vast amounts of information very quickly. Examples of supercomputer applications include simulating global weather patterns, decoding genome structures, or simulating the human mind.
A form of supercomputer constructed from many smaller systems that have been connected together.
A software-based platform that allows multiple virtual servers, isolated from host computer, to operate on a single or, potentially, a fabric of many systems. Initially intended to more efficiently use expensive and underutilized hardware, virtualization has allowed for better fault tolerance and flexible, dynamic, and automated server operation and maintenance.
is software whose source-code is freely available to developers and users. ………….. is developed not by single users or companies, but by communities of connected users and groups.
Open Source Software
is a system used to convert plain-text document into one optimized for viewing as a Web page, integrating colors, graphics, fonts, and links.
Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML)
A computer language similar to HTML, XML makes it easier to exchange, validate, store, and interpret data between a variety of applications and systems.
Extensible markup language (XML)
Many graphical and traditional text based HTML editors exist and range from the unsophisticated text editors to feature rich graphical WYSIWIG (What You See Is What You Get) interfaces. Modern popular examples include Adobe’s Dreamweaver and Microsoft’s Visual Studio.
Web design tools
Graphics, video, animations, and interactive multimedia are popular elements in Web pages. Popular tools used to create these elements include Adobe’s Photoshop, Flash, and Premier products.
Tools that allow webmasters and developers to achieve better rankings from search engines, implying that traffic would better route to a site as a result.
Search engine optimization
Services are provided in-house on servers or in a datacenter owned, managed, and administered by the organization.
On Premises (private cloud)
Software licensed and hosted on centralized or distributed servers that belong to a service provider. Users access this software using a connection to the Internet and a Web browser. Examples include Salesforce.com’s CRM (Customer Relationship Management) application or Google Apps.
Software as a service (SAAS
A service provider provides server space, the server, virtualization, operating system, database, and development environment in a platform that can be used for application development. An example would be Amazon Web Services.
Platform as a service (PAAS)
A service provider provides a cloud fabric, or pooled services, including server space, servers, storage, and all other aspects of the computing platform, with the exception of the operating system and applications, which the client organization would install and manage. Benefits include dynamic scaling and may include geographic distribution. An example would be Windows Azure or Rackspace.
Infrastructure as a service (IAAS)
ensures that only authorized personnel are admitted access.
ensures that data is produced and modified in the correct way.
ensures that access to resources is unimpeded.
The potential for loss, commonly associated with the monetary and non-monetary impact to such a ,,,,,,,,,,, as well as the probability of occurrence.
A weakness in the technology, process and procedure, or people involved with any given information asset. Such ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, may include weaknesses in the technologies used, including their configurations, and the security policies that are enforced or not within an organization.
The identified and unidentified actors that have the potential for attacking the information assets. Such actors may include elements both internal and external to the organization.
The damaging or potentially damaging acts that are the product of an attacker’s process, which may include: reconnaissance, scanning, gaining and maintaining access, escalating privileges, building backdoors, and destroying evidence.
a loss of access created by cut cables or power services, malware, hoaxes, bots and botnets (i.e. a computer or groups of hijacked computers to attack others, often without notice to their owners), smurf attacks, SYN floods, DNS poisoning, or outright hijacking and/or redirection of services.
Denial of service
malicious software applications
Malware One high-profile example of a malware threat is SQL Injection, which uses vulnerabilities in the most popular type of database, SQL, to modify, delete, or steal information.
Malware is spread through a variety of methods, direct download (intentional or not), as a part of another application or utility
website visit (e.g. drive-by download), or merely by being connected to the Internet or affected network
In some cases, internal attackers, such as disgruntled employees, may introduce malware
One high-profile example of a malware threat is……………….. which uses vulnerabilities in the most popular type of database, SQL, to modify, delete, or steal information.
a threat or attack that exploits known or unknown vulnerabilities in software. Software developers quickly patch vulnerabilities once known, though identifying these vulnerabilities takes time. Once found and fixed, developers must send patches to all affected or potentially affected users, which, unfortunately, does not occur consistently. In other cases, the public release of patches is used as a tool for malware authors to reverse engineer and easily attack those who have not updated their systems in time.
Zero Day Attack
normally low tech attacks used to trick individuals into disclosing information, providing access, or changing their patterns. Examples include phishing, spear-phishing (i.e. targeted phishing), dumpster diving, baiting, tailgating, and quid pro quo.
an authorized and ethical computer hacker**, one who helps organizations to protect their networks and systems from others, via penetration testing, or the design and implementation of policies.
a computer hacker** with skills and intent to help organizations protect their networks and systems from others, but whose services may come at a price, or sold to the highest bidder.
a computer hacker** with criminal intent.