b. What recording method would you have James use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior?

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b. What recording method would you have James use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior?

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Imagine you have a friend, James, who is studying to be an elementary school teacher. James is doing his student teaching this semester in a second-grade classroom in a public school. James mentioned to you that one of his students has trouble staying in her seat, paying attention during class, and participating in activities. This student, Sara, gets out of her seat and talks to or teases other children. When she is out of her seat, she does not pay attention to James, does not participate in activities, and disrupts the other children.

James believes that if he could just get Sara to stay in her seat, he could get her to pay attention and participate. As a result, she would perform better in class, and the other students would also do better. James decides to consult with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) for help. The BCBA informs James that the first step he must take, if he is going to use behavior modification with Sara, is to develop a recording plan to measure her behavior. In this exercise, develop a plan that James could use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior. Consider the following questions:

a. What is the behavioral definition of outof-seat behavior?

b. What recording method would you have James use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior?

c. What instrument would you have James use to record the behavior? Will this instrument be practical for James to use as a teacher?

Imagine you have a friend, James, who is studying to be an elementary school teacher. James is doing his student teaching this semester in a second-grade classroom in a public school. James mentioned to you that one of his students has trouble staying in her seat, paying attention during class, and participating in activities. This student, Sara, gets out of her seat and talks to or teases other children. When she is out of her seat, she does not pay attention to James, does not participate in activities, and disrupts the other children.

James believes that if he could just get Sara to stay in her seat, he could get her to pay attention and participate. As a result, she would perform better in class, and the other students would also do better. James decides to consult with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) for help. The BCBA informs James that the first step he must take, if he is going to use behavior modification with Sara, is to develop a recording plan to measure her behavior. In this exercise, develop a plan that James could use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior. Consider the following questions:

a. What is the behavioral definition of outof-seat behavior?

b. What recording method would you have James use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior?

c. What instrument would you have James use to record the behavior? Will this instrument be practical for James to use as a teacher?

Imagine you have a friend, James, who is studying to be an elementary school teacher. James is doing his student teaching this semester in a second-grade classroom in a public school. James mentioned to you that one of his students has trouble staying in her seat, paying attention during class, and participating in activities. This student, Sara, gets out of her seat and talks to or teases other children. When she is out of her seat, she does not pay attention to James, does not participate in activities, and disrupts the other children.

James believes that if he could just get Sara to stay in her seat, he could get her to pay attention and participate. As a result, she would perform better in class, and the other students would also do better. James decides to consult with a Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) for help. The BCBA informs James that the first step he must take, if he is going to use behavior modification with Sara, is to develop a recording plan to measure her behavior. In this exercise, develop a plan that James could use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior. Consider the following questions:

a. What is the behavioral definition of outof-seat behavior?

b. What recording method would you have James use to record Sara’s out-of-seat behavior?

c. What instrument would you have James use to record the behavior? Will this instrument be practical for James to use as a teacher?

Answer & Explanation (3)

c Here is a tip:
The quantitative data on the occurrences of the target behavior must be put on paper.

Explanation
A teacher intends to document the occurrence of each instance of a child's behavior of poking a classmate. The teacher intends to carry out an interval-recording procedure. They divide the observation time of sixty minutes into six intervals that are ten minutes long. The following recording instruments are used:

Interval-recording datasheet: On the sheet, under the heading of 'number of intervals', a row consisting of six boxes are made and numbered. In the same row, the last box is under the heading of 'total times behavior occurred'. During each interval, if the poking behavior is exhibited, an 'X' is placed in that interval box. If at the end of an interval the behavior does not occur, an 'O' is placed on that interval. In the end, the total number of 'X' marks convey the total number of times the behavior takes place in the sixty-minute observation period.
The stationery items required to make marks on the sheet are either a pencil or a pen.
A timer or a stopwatch informs the observer about the beginning and the end of a time interval.

The teacher can record each behavior occurrence of the student during small time intervals because they can pay attention to the student leaving the seat behavior for particular time intervals such as ten minutes. As a result, the teacher would not spend their whole time observing the target student and could teach and meet the demands of other students.

Verified Answer
The following tools are used to administer the interval-recording method for recording the out-of-seat behavior of a student:

Interval-recording datasheet: On this sheet, a teacher can mark whether the problematic behavior is exhibited during each interval or not.
Pencil or pen: The mark on the sheet is made using either a pencil or a pen.
A timer: The timer helps cue the teacher at the start of each interval.

This is a convenient way of documenting the target behavior as all the tools are easily available. The teacher does not have to continuously observe the child's problematic behavior and can focus on other students.

b Here is a tip:
To analyze and interpret the target behavior, it is necessary to assess the behavior under specific dimensions of behavior modification.

Explanation
To formulate an intervention strategy, the teacher requires data regarding the various dimensions of the target behavior. This data is collected through various behavior recording procedures, such as the following:

Continuous recording: This involves documenting each instance of the target behavior that is exhibited during a predetermined observation period. Continuous recording can take the following forms:
Frequency recording: The observer documents the total number of times the target behavior is exhibited during the observation period. This method is preferred when the target behaviors are short and discrete.
Duration recording: This method measures the duration of each instance of the target behavior. This is most preferred for behaviors that last for a long time and each instance is of varying durations.
Interval-recording: Through this procedure, an observer observes the individual exhibiting the target behavior at predetermined intervals of time to document whether or not the behavior is displayed in each of these intervals. This procedure is most suitable for situations in which the observer cannot continuously observe the targeted individual.
Verified Answer
The following recording approaches can be used to record the target behavior:

Frequency recording: The teacher may count each instance of the child leaving the seat and returning to it within the observation period of 45 minutes.
Duration recording: The teacher may time each instance of the behavior, that is, the time spent between leaving the seat and returning to it.
Interval-recording: The teacher may divide the entire 45 minute period into three intervals of 15 minutes each. The teacher may then document whether the child leaves the seat during each interval.

The most preferred recording procedure, in this case, is interval-recording because the teacher cannot continuously observe the child during the entire period as they have to teach. As a result, the strategy of dividing the class duration into smaller time intervals and documenting the occurrence of the behavior only once during each interval takes less effort and time.

a Here is a tip:
Without stating the characteristics of the target behavior, other procedures of behavior modification cannot be applied.

Explanation
Behavior modification is a technique to make changes in the habitual or regular behavior of an individual. This helps modify undesired behavior into the desired behavior.

The first step in behavior modification is formulating a definition of the behavior to be changed. The behavior in focus for behavior documentation procedures and interventions to either cease or decrease its occurrence is termed the target behavior.

Before applying documentation procedures, the target behavior must be defined in a way that it is observable by others, has measurable aspects, and is repeatedly exhibited by an individual.

The description of out-of-seat behavior can include not engaging in classroom activities, not concentrating in class, persistently getting out of the seat without prior permission of the teacher, keeping one's seat towards another's desk, and so on.

Verified Answer
Out-of-desk behavior in a classroom can be defined as a child's behavior of frequently leaving their desk without the teacher's permission, scooching, and so on. Such children disturb their classmates and do not concentrate in class.

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