Conventional wisdom makes the assumption that people ________ get wiser with age and/but modern research on the topic has found

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Conventional wisdom makes the assumption that people ________ get wiser with age and/but modern research on the topic has found

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Conventional wisdom makes the assumption that people ________ get wiser with age and/but modern research on the topic has found that wisdom reaches its peak around the age of ______.

Do; 25

A child is told a story about Bobby, who puts his teddy bear under his bed and then goes outside to play. While he is gone, Bobby’s mother finds his teddy bear and puts it in the cupboard. When asked where Bobby will look for his teddy bear when he returns, most 2- and 3-year-olds will say ____________ and most 4-year-olds will say ___________.

Under the bed; in the closet

Which of the following is most representative of a child in Jean Piaget’s preoperational stage of development?

child incorrectly assumes that everyone in a room has the same view of an object that he does.

Research has determined that children in various cultures progress through Jean Piaget’s stages in ___________ and that children learn many cognitive skills at a(n) _______ age than Piaget originally assumed.

the same order; earlier

When researchers use a ____________ design, they typically find that both fluid and crystallised intelligence decline relatively early in life, but when they use a(n) ___________ design, they often find that both of these abilities remain stable until much later in life.

cross-sectional; longitudinal

Studies indicate that children from divorced families are more likely to suffer from all of the following problems, EXCEPT:

they are more likely to have a criminal record.

One important limitation to keep in mind when interpreting the results of studies examining the child outcomes associated with different parenting styles is that:

because this work is correlational, we can’t specifically tell which factor causes the other.

Robert and Chris have recently married, and Robert brings with him two children from a previous marriage. Studies suggest that Robert’s kids will show the highest levels of adjustment if:

Robert takes primary responsibility for the discipline and Chris supports his authority.

The proportion of couples living together without being married in Australia is now:

16%

Maeve and Paul are the proud parents of a new baby girl. This means that when Maeve conceived their child, the 23rdchromosome in her egg cell was a(n) ____ and the 23rd chromosome in Paul’s sperm cell was a(n) ____.

X;X

According to research on Diana Baumrind’s parenting styles, the one that is associated with the most positive childhood outcomes is the ____________ style.

Authoritative

With regard to Jean Piaget’s stages of development, modern developmental researchers have determined that:

culture does influence cognitive development and Piaget may have been biased in his conceptualisation of ‘cognitive development’.

Consistent with the concept of _____________________, a study found that children over age 3 who grew up with older siblings performed _________ on a cognitive task than did children with no siblings or younger siblings.

a zone of proximal development; better

Which of the following statements about the designs typically used in developmental research is TRUE?

The sequential design is a combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal designs.

According to Diana Baumrind, authoritative parents show parenting behaviours that are:

high in control and high in warmth.

Developmental psychology focuses on biological, physical, psychological and behavioural changes that occur throughout life. Which of the following issues would NOT guide developmental research?

Autonomy vs competence

Erik Erickson is best known for his work with:

psychosocio development

Once they were returned to the colony at six months old, Harlow’s isolated monkeys:

were indifferent to, terrified of or aggressive towards other monkeys.

The field of developmental psychology would probably address which of the following questions?

How consistent are people’s cognitive abilities across the lifespan?

Tanya was a mum during the 1980s. When pregnant she would often settle down with a cup of tea, relaxed with her feet up and watched her favourite television show, Neighbours. When her baby is born and Neighbours comes on, the baby is likely to:

become quiet and alert.

two children are in the same stage of cognitive development and neither can solve problems involving conservation of number. However, when one of the children is helped, she can solve such problems. When the other child receives the same help, he is still unable to solve them. This example best demonstrates:

the concept of a proximal zone of development.

Which of the following statements regarding the impact of daycare is most accurate?

Except when several negative factors are combined, daycare appears to have little or no effect on the quality of infants’ attachments to their parents.

The text defines _____________ as a biologically based predisposition to react to the environment in specific behavioural and emotional ways.

Temperament

Which of the following placements of a hypothetical third eye would be most characteristic of a child in the concrete operational stage?

between her own two eyes

Research on the information-processing speeds of children has consistently found that processing speeds improve ______________ with age and that the most rapid rate of change occurs between the ages of __________.

continuously; 8 and 12

Which of the following statements regarding Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is most accurate?

Research is largely consistent with Piaget’s theory, but there are some important limitations and inaccuracies.

researcher examines the development and effects of shyness by finding a group of 100 shy children aged 10 and following them up for the next 30 years. This design is a:

longitudinal design.

An infant who smiles at and vocalises to almost any adult that she encounters is most likely in John Bowlby’s _______________ attachment behaviour phase.

indiscriminate

Around the age of 18 months, infants can recognise themselves in a mirror. Developmental psychologists take this as evidence that these children have developed:

a sense of self.

When researchers use a _____ design, they typically find that both fluid and crystallised intelligence decline relatively early in life, but when they use an ______ design, they often find that both of these abilities remain stable until much later in life.

Correlational; experimental

Studies of human and animal isolates suggest that infancy is a _____period where attachment forms most easily and facilitates later development.

sensitive

Two children are in the same stage of cognitive development and neither can solve problems involving conservation of number. However, when one of the children is helped, she can solve such problems. When the other child receives the same help, he is still unable to solve them. This example best demonstrates

how early problems with object permanence can influence later development.

Senile dementia refers to dementia that occurs

after the age of 65.

Dale is 25 years old but has never really gone through a turbulent identity issue. He continues to go to church with his parents and took a leadership role in the youth group from a young age. According to Marcia, Dale would be in the _________identity status.
During the stage of ____________________cognitive development, children are able to easily solve the conservation problems that confused them earlier in life.

foreclosure; concrete operational

Your grandmother is 76. According to studies of age-related information-processing changes, which of the following areas would you expect to be LEAST impaired by the process of ageing?

Memory for familiar information.

The adolescent brain

shows marked neural restructuring in the prefrontal cortex and limbic system.

With regard to Jean Piaget’s stages of development, modern developmental researchers have determined that

culture does influence cognitive development and Piaget may have been biased in his conceptualisation of ‘cognitive development’.

Consistent with the concept of ______________, a study found that children over age 3 who grew up with older siblings performed ______ on a cognitive task than did children with no siblings or younger siblings.

a zone of proximal development; better

Studies suggest that infants from low-income families who receive ________ have better social adjustment and perform better in school than children who receive ________.

high-quality daycare ;no daycare at all.

A child claims that stealing a medication to save a life is wrong because it violates the fundamental and essential ethical principle of justice, which allows society to function effectively. Lawrence Kohlberg would most likely classify this child as being at which level of moral reasoning?

Stage 6

Regardless of the methodology being used, researchers studying changes in intelligence over the lifespan usually find that

fluid intelligence appears to decline somewhat earlier than crystallised intelligence does.

Studies examining a child’s ability to lie would probably be used by developmental researchers to make inferences regarding the

child’s egocentrism and theory of mind.

Studies examining newborn infants’ visual preferences suggest that an infant would be most interested in which of the following?

a circle with a complex pattern inside of it

Studies indicate that most people who retire ________ more likely to become anxious, depressed or lonely. The risks that are associated with retirement become more likely when the retirement is _________.

are not; forced

Moratorium is to identity achievement as:

experiencing an identity crisis is to resolving an identity crisis.

Which of the following is the correct assumed order of Kübler-Ross’s stages of coping with impending death?

denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance

With regard to foetal and infant development, the cephalocaudal principle asserts that the:

head and upper body tend to develop first.

Most studies of newlyweds find that marital satisfaction typically __________ in the first few years after marriage.

Declines

The term ‘proximodistal’ is most consistent with which of the following?

innermost then outmost

Critical period is to sensitive period as:

essential is to optimal.

Placed in the strange situation, Eric shows no distress when his mother leaves the room, and he isn’t very excited when she returns. Overall, he doesn’t appear to be very attached to his mother, but he doesn’t resist when she picks him up to give him a kiss. Eric would most likely be classified by Mary Ainsworth as:

anxious-avoidant.

Which of the following is a method used by developmental psychologists to study the sensory capabilities and perceptual preferences of infants?

the preferential looking procedure

Which of the following lists the 3 stages of prenatal development in the proper order (from earliest to latest)?

Germinal, embryonic, foetal

All of the following are valid limitations or Criticisms of Kubler-Ross’s stages of coping with impending death except

some people may change their behaviour because of prior awareness of the stages

Investigating the impact of temperment of psychological development, Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess found that infants who they classify as ____ were more likely to suffer from behavioural and emotional problems over a 10-year period

difficult

____ and _____ parenting styles are similar in that they both involve exercising control over children, but the latter style does so with a high degree of warmth

Authoritarian ;authoritative

Which of the following examples best demonstrates the process of accommodation?

A toddler begins to correctly refer to a horse as ‘horsy’ and not as ‘big doggie’

In Erik Erickson’s ____ stage of psychological development, how adequately a person’s needs are met and how much love they receive determines the amount of faith that he or she has in the world.

basic trust versus basic mistrust

According to the text, puberty marks the beginning of ____ and is characterised by the fact that the person is now capable of _____

adolescence; adolescence

In the ____ stage, the fertilised egg is called a zygote, whereas in the ____ stage, it is referred to as a foetus.

germinal ; foetal

All of the following could be considered as examples of cognitive limitations that are characteristic of Jean Piaget’s preoperational stage, EXCEPT:

Language of object permanencey.

Which of the following statements concerning gender constancy and gender identity is TRUE?

Gender identity usually develops several years before gender constancy.

Which of the following lists the correct order of progression for Donald Super’s (1957) vocational stages?

Growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance decline

The concept of a zone proximal development is most closely associated with which of the following theorists?

Luv Vygotsky

The primary difference between Lawrence Kohlberg’s stage 3 and stage 4 moral reasoning is that in stage 3, children base their decisions on _____, whereas in stage 4 they base them on _____.

gaining approval; rules that must be obeyed

When studying the impact of parenting styles, it is important to remember that:

authoritarian parenting will always produce emotionally stunted children.

In the _____________ stage, the fertilised egg is called a zygote, whereas in the ___________ stage, it is referred to as a foetus.

germinal; foetal

A self-esteem researcher decides to survey people of different ages to address self-esteem change through the lifespan. He recruits participants in four different age groups: 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49 and 50 to 59. They complete a self-esteem survey and he analyses the data to see whether any patterns emerge. This study would be considered an example of a:

cross-sectional design.

John Bowlby’s ____________ attachment behaviour phase typically begins around three months of age and, during this phase, the infant tends to direct its attachment behaviours towards _____________.

discriminate; familiar caregivers

Which of the following statements concerning attachment is TRUE?

Stranger anxiety develops around 6 or 7 months, but separation anxiety develops between 12 and 16 months.

Senile dementia refers to dementia that occurs:

after age 65.

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