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Morality concerns beliefs and ethics is the rational study of morality The difference between morality and ethics is..


Morality concerns beliefs and ethics is the rational study of morality The difference between morality and ethics is..


Morality concerns beliefs and ethics is the rational study of morality

The difference between morality and ethics is..

Normative, prescriptive, an ought claim

When something provides us a standard for judging actions, it can be called…


In Golding’s Lord of the Flies, which character seems most to represent a morality that appeals to a sense of transcendent good

Relatively equal

Hobbes begins his account with the claim that nature has made all human beings…

The laws are designed to keep order in war time

In Billy Budd, legal justice is particularly rigid because

Good and evil are products of slave morality

Nietzsche’s account of evil claims that..

Our cognitive nature

For Richard Taylor, the source of our sense of good and evil is..

is dependent on cultural or subjective acceptance

“Moral relativism” is the theory that the validity of moral principles…

Derives from norms that vary from culture to culture

Ruth Benedict argues that the concept of the good

those rules are necessary for society to exist

Rachels says that there are some moral rules shared by all societies because

Slough off what is ours to do

Jean Bethke Elshatain argues that when we refuse to makes judgements, we…

is ultimately an incoherent position

Mary Midgley says that moral isolationism


Lord of the Flies


The philosopher who wrote “On the State of Nature”
Laws of Nature
All men are equal, no matter the strength or intelligence, because every man has the capability of killing another man


Hobbes’ belief there are 3 causes for quarrels

Hobbes’ Laws of Nature

Right of Nature
Law of Nature


The Philosopher who wrote “Billy Budd”
(Billy Budd and Claggart are moral opposites. Billy is pureness, easy going, easy to talk to. Claggart is devoid of humanity and morals and hates Billy. Billy accidentally kills him and the crime outweighed the circumstances and Billy was hung .)


Philosopher who wrote “Beyond Good and Evil”

Master Morality (Nietzsche)

Good and Bad mean practically the same thing as noble and despicable
Noble- he creates honor and passes judgment
Respect and enthusiastic about severance and devotion
Mundane (dull)
good man arouses fear

Slave Morality (Nietzsche)

the morality of utility- meant to alleviate the existence of sufferers
Good and Evil (power and dangerousness reside in evil)
Evil man arouses fear
Freedom- the instinct for happiness
Good man- good natured and easily deceived
Transcendent (exceptional)


Who wrote “On the Origin of Good and Evil”

Four stages of the world (Taylor)

1- No humans
2- Machine like human
3- one cognitive being
4- two or more cognitive beings

One cognitive being- good and evil enter the world

Third Stage of World (Taylor)

Many cognitive beings- right and wrong enter the world

Fourth Stage of World


“The Case for Moral Relativism”
Cultural Relativism
Morality differs in every society (socially approved habits)
Norms- what is good and right
Going against norms- bad and wrong

Normality defined by Benedict

culturally defined- socially elaborated segment of human behavior in any culture

Abnormality defined by Benedict

the segment that that particular civilizations does not use ( the socially unacceptable stuff)


“Why Morality is Not Relative”
Cultural relativism says that there is no such thing as truth in ethics, only various cultural codes.
She argues against cultural relativism

Cultural Differences

Rachels – different cultures have different moral codes. No objective truth in morality. Right and wrong are a matter of opinion.

Taking Cultural Relativism too seriously

can’t compare our society to others (cannot say a society is morally inferior than ours)
Idea of moral progress is called into question


“Judge Not?”
Why we need judging

Rash judging- not judging well
Good judging- lies at the heart of what it means to be a self-respecting human in a community of other self -respecting humans
Prejudice is rash judging

Types of judging


“Trying Out One’s New Sword”
Moral Isolationist- notion that cultures are isolated entities that can neither understand nor make moral judgements about each other

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